Our alphabet has a fascinating history, and it is with the story of “Communication in Signs” that the elementary language program begins. What part did Phoenician merchants play in the development of written symbols? What did the Romans contribute? How is our alphabet different from Chinese characters? These are some of the questions the children may pose for further research. In addition, language is more than ‘a fascinating subject of study in itself. It is the vehicle of human communication, the way in which we exchange ideas, thoughts and feelings. Thus, the language curriculum covers in depth written and spoken language, reading, grammar and research, the keys to both self expression and the acquisition of knowledge. For Montessori children, writing typically precedes reading. In the primary classroom, children often develop writing skills, and these, combined with the desire to communicate, lead to many varieties of written composition in the elementary classroom. In addition to the story of written language, stories about oral language, such as “The Story of Human Speech” and “The History of the English Language,” are presented to the children. The teachers use storytelling across the curriculum to convey information and to model the power of spoken language. Children are encouraged to discuss and share their ideas with one another and with the larger group. Many choose to share their reports orally, recite poems, and produce plays. Most children begin reading in the primary classroom. In the elementary program, they continue learning to read and truly begin reading to learn. Books of all literary types are available in the classrooms. Both fiction and non-fiction serve to expand the children’s knowledge and awareness. Adults and children read orally and silently throughout the day, and the children develop a love of literature. They discuss shared readings of stories and books, following a seminar format. This involves preparation of the reading and a willingness to listen and discuss, respectfully, ideas about the text. The study of grammar in Montessori is unique. Having been introduced to the “function of words” in the primary classroom, elementary children study the parts of speech in more detail. What work does a pronoun do and how is it related to the verb? If its place is changed in the sentence, does the meaning remain the same? Each part of speech has a distinctive, colorful symbol. Children place these symbols above the words of a poem or a prose passage to “see its grammatical structure.” Later, they begin to analyze the style of different writers using the grammar symbols. Visits to the library give the children opportunities to find out more about language. They learn to use reference materials, and they come to appreciate the library as a source of many kinds of information. Their language research may involve the comparison of works by a particular author, the derivation of idioms, or a multi-cultural study of similar folk tales. Library visits are one of many kinds of language explorations children undertake beyond the classroom.


Written Language

  • The History of Writing (key lessons on topics such as cave paintings, the Rosetta Stone, heraldry, paper making, contributions of Charlemagne.)
  • Composition
    • Paragraph organization
    • Kinds of paragraphs (descriptive, narrative, expository, persuasive)
    • Reports (taking notes, outlining)
    • Essays
    • Letters (informal and business)
    • Poetry (quatrain, cinquain, haiku, limerick, etc.)
    • Stories (setting, characters, plot development, dialogue)
    • Play writing
    • Speech writing
  • Mechanics
    • Spelling
    • Punctuation and capitalization
    • Proofreading and editing
  • Handwriting
    • Cursive and manuscript
    • Calligraphy (italics, copperplate, etc.)
    • Illuminated letters and borders
  • Word processing
    • Individual written work
    • Class publications (newspaper, literary magazine, etc.)

Spoken Language

  • Theories on the origin of speech
  • Dialogues and interviews
  • Class discussions and meetings
  • Oral reports and recitations
  • Drama


    • Word Study
      • Root words and affixes
      • Word families and etymologies of words
      • Synonyms, antonyms, and homonyms
      • Vocabulary building

Parts of Speech

      • Kinds of nouns
      • Kinds of adjectives
      • Verbals (infinitives, participles, gerunds)
      • Kinds of verbs (action, auxiliary, linking, transitive and intransitive), verb phrases, and conjugations
      • Prepositional Phrases
      • Pronouns (cases and antecedents)
      • Use of modifiers (adjectives and adverbs)
      • Kinds of conjunctions

Sentence analysis

    • Parts of a sentence (subject predicate, etc.)
    • Kinds of clauses (main and subordinate, noun, adverbial adjectival)
    • Sentence diagramming

Foreign Languages (Spanish etc.)

  • Introduction to the language and its history

Reading and Literature

  • Oral and silent reading by adults and children
  • Literary circles (discussions of shared stories and books)
  • Variety in prose (mysteries, historical fiction, biographies, etc.)
  • Poetry analysis and appreciation
    • Meter
    • Rhyme scheme
    • Poetic devices: simile, metaphor, alliteration, personification
  • Reading and analysis of drama
  • Style
    • Different writing styles
    • Voice and audience
    • Analysis of writing style, using grammar symbols
  • Research
    • Areas of language research
    • History of language; history of English
    • Derivation of idioms
    • Changes in spelling (historical perspective)
    • History of a literary genre (drama, letter writing, etc.)
    • History of English literature (British and American)
    • Study of a selected author
    • Introduction to foreign languages and independent research
  • Resources
    • Library resources
    • Other community resources (museums, theaters, universities, local newspapers, etc.